Friday, July 17, 2015


 By Eric S. Giron , Pictures by Resty Guevara 

Originally published on SUNBURST Magazine, February 1979 issue 

The Remarkable Story of the Santos Family that has been carving religious statues for three generations and still holds an annual procession for St. Ignatius that began nearly a hundred years ago.

 “From Father to Son, the Chisel is Passed on to Three Generations.”

 Art flourished in the late 19th century in Sta. Cruz, which became the cradle of the first sculptors, painters, silversmiths, engravers, and musicians.

 Sta. Cruz, then a barrio and not yet an arrabal (district) of Manila, ascended in importance as the home of the elite who acquired their wealth through business and industry.

 The entresuelo of the Paterno mansion bounded by Calle noria (P. Paterno today), P. Gomez, Sales and Carriedo rang with the hammers of silversmiths shaping out the finest jewelry under the supervision of Trinidad Paterno. Their jewelry was in demand in Manila and in the provinces.

 No. 12 and 37 on old Dulumbayan St. leading to the Arranque Market were jewelry shops that also manufactured altars and silver-plated carros for saints used in processions.

 Don Florentino Torres, in his “Memorias”(El Debate, October 19, 1924) recalled: “Romualdo Teodoro De Jesus was the best sculptor; the Zamoras had the most distinguished engraving shops; the brothers Torres, Valeriano and Victorio (among the first electricians of Manila) were the most celebrated scenographic painters who specialized in house décor; Maestro Teban taught the rudiments of music, although his surname was not remembered; he was a professor of various musical groups.”

The taller de escultura of the present-day Santos Family at V. Fugoso St. (Zurbaran)

 Sculpture during the16th century Spanish regime was the domain of Chinese craftsmen of Binondo. Antique ivory, silver or polychromed wooden images of Christ, the Virgin and saints show marked Chinoise influence in the eyes and other features. The skill of the Sangleys in church sculpture was mentioned by Bishop Domingo de Salazar in a letter to King Felipe of Spain in 1591.

 But in the 19th century, Filipino sculptors emerged in Sta. Cruz. The first sculptures of saints that were borne or pushed in all the provinces of the archipelago originated from the shops of Sta. Cruz and were famous as majestic figures, while the Virgin, female saints, cherubim and angels were beautiful”, Don Florentino wrote.

 Jose Rizal’s character, Capitan Tiago, in his novel “Noli me Tangere”, owned several images, among them, the Sacred Family of carved ivory, eyes of crystal, long lashes and blonde wavy hair which were neatly executed by the sculptors of Sta. Cruz”.

 Romualdo T. De Jesus, the sculptor mentioned by Torres in his “Memorias “ was an instructor of Rizal in the art. He attended Rizal’s re-interment at the Paco cemetery. Rizal was hastily buried in an unmarked grave outside the cemetery after his execution by Spanish rifles on Campo de Bagumbayan on Dec. 30, 1898. His family and the sculptor’s guild of which he was a member exhumed his remains and secretly buried them inside the cemetery. A cross was placed on his grave with the ineverted initials of his name – R.P.J.—probably to camouflage his true identity from Spanish authorities. The historical photograph of this memorable occasion is preserved by remigio Garcia, owner of Manila Filatefica (a printing firm).

 Up to 1893, the mestizos and natives of Santa Cruz and Binondo were organized into gremios (guilds) governed by a tribunal. The headmen, according to Felipe M. Roxas, who became a mayor of Manila from 1905to 1917 “took leading roles in public affairs and reaped the honors and privileges corresponding to their social status” which they showed off “ in public ceremonies and religious processions”.

Benigno Santos was the founder of a dynasty of sculptors who have left an indelible mark on the religious art of the country.

 One such headman, Benigno Santos, became a cabeza de barangay of San Ignacio in Sta. Cruz, a position which gave him jurisdiction over 50 to 60 families. As a cabeza, Santos acquired property in the area of Manggahan (P. Guevara), Sulukan (Zurbaran) and Anyahan (Mayhaligue). There was no Quezon Boulevard at that time. This area was referred to as bukid because of the thick talahib growth and the swampy portions planted to buyo (betel nut).

 But after the government purchased Santos’ properties at a minimal price based on the real estate tax, they evolved into the campus of the P. Gomez Elementary School and Osmeña Park, a children’s playground that is now the site of the Central Market.

 In the 1890s, Santos built a chapel on the lot now occupied by the P. Gomez school and a tiny schoolhouse where children were taught catechism. A Jesuit priest said mass at the chapel on Sundays and holidays. Santos initiated the celebration of the fiesta in his barangay. A procession was held with the patron saint, Ignatius of Loyola, as the lone reigning figure. The commemoration of the fiesta developed into a lavish yearly tradition.

 For the Sta. Cruz procession, the biggest in Manila in that era, Santos contributed four life-size images which he carved, of San Ignacio, San Pedro, the Panalangin (Christ Kneeling in Prayer in the Garden of Olives) and the awesome Christ with the hands tied to a stone pillar, which is still preserved by a son of Santos.

 Even when he was cabeza of San Ignacio, Santos resided on Calle Salcedo between Carriedo and Azcarraga in the heart of Sta. Cruz. Two doors were occupied by his taller de escultura where religious images were turned out of batikuling, a fine-grained white and malleable wood favored by sculptors, and carrozas gilded with ornate silver were manufactured.

 Santos learned the art of woodcarving from a Spaniard named Flores who carved the Tercera Caida or Third Fall of Christ for Sta. Cruz Church. There were five figures in the group, including the fallen Christ, Simon of Cyrene who helped him up, and Roman soldiers. The sculpture went up in flames when the church was burned during World War 2.

 For Quiapo Church, Santos executed The Death of St. Joseph, a sculpture that is missing today. He had the generous habit of making altars and images and donating them for free to churches in Bulacan and other provinces.

 The Santos family moved over to the house owned by Enrique Zobel on Calle Sales close to the laboratory of Botica Sta. Cruz and the residence of the eminent Dr. Ricardo Papa when Calle Salcedo and Calle Dulumbayan forking from it were expropriated by the government . The two streets were aligned to make the southern portion of Avenida Rizal. Calle Cervantes from Azcarraga to Sangleyes (Blumentritt) formed the northern extension of the new avenue. The jewelry shops and the talleres de esculturas on Dulumbayan transferred to Calle Platerias (meaning “silversmith shops”).

SANTIAGO SANTOS, the son of Benigno Santos, became a carver just like his father before him.

 Santos had ten children. He was married thrice. Santos’ sixth son (by his third wife) took to woodcarving at the age of fifteen. Santiago was schooled at San Beda College house at the Lady of Montserrat abbey on Balmes and Arlegui, the original building which is used today as a public high school.

 Santiago learned the basics of sculpture from his father. His knowledge of making designs for his work was self-learned. Santiago enrolled at the San Beda School of Fine Arts with the intention of professionalizing his craft. However, circumstances forced him to give up the course.

 When the Jones Bridge was constructed by architect Juan Arellano to replace the Puente de España wrecked by the typhoon in 1918, Santiago was connected with the firm of Vidal Tampingco and Martinez, and was contracted to make four statues at the north and south approaches. Vidal was the son of Isabelo Tampingco who made the sculptural murals of san Ignacio Church and the Archbishop’s Palace in Intramuros. He was a partner of Felix Roxas, the architect of both edifices. Additional murals were made by Graciano Nepomuceno. All were destroyed when Intramuros was savked during World War 2.

 Of the four pieces of magnificent pieces of sculpture, only one has been preserved. It is the symbolic figure of a woman as Filipinas, cradling a son in her arms, which now stands on Rizal Park near the monument of Jose Rizal.

 Aside from Romualdo T. De Jesus who lived on Oroquieta, Sta. Cruz, the contemporary sculptors whom Santos recalls were the late Maximo Vicente who had his shop on R. Hidalgo, near the footbridge crossing the estero; Cayetano and Isabelo Tampinco, who had their taller on the small side street in Quiapo now known as R. Hidalgo Extension; Irineo Cristobal on Echague; and Eulogio Garcia, whose shop fronted Quiapo Church.

 After a five-year stay at Arlegui, Santiago went to Cebu and opened a sculpturing shop on Calle Norteamericano (the name has changed since then) the only shop of its kind in Cebu then.

 In 1929, Santiago’s father became gravely ill. At his father’s bed, his sister Bonifacia whispered that the prodigal son, Ignacio, had returned. But Benigno Santos was too ill to hear anything and he died without communicating with his son.

 Of his father’s collection, Santiago said that the few that were left including small ivory images, were raffled off among his brothers and sisters. His youngest brother, Eustaquio, won the most significant work: Christ tied to the stone pillar by the Roman soldiers. The soldiers were burned during the war and only the Christ remains.

 Santiago left Home because his father scolded him for not finishing a piece of sculpture. Santiago said he was still making the design of the image when his irascible father flared up and hurled a piece of wood at him. Not knowing where to go, he visited a friend, Andres, the only son of Manuel and Pilar Benitez, at Arlegui. When he revealed he had left home, Andres’mother asked him to stay with them since she only had one child.

 Santiago’s sister, Mercedes, brought him unfinished pieces of woodcarving from his father’s shop which he worked on. His father knew of the arrangement but never spoke to him although Santiago knew the elder Santos once watched him as he carved on wood in Antipolo. There were reservations between father and son.

 In 1930, Santiago went into partnership with Pascual Herrera (his compadre who was in the photograph of Rizal’s grave at Paco Cemetery). They bought a deteriorating Chinese tienda on the corner of Zurbaran and P. Guevara and built in its place a small woodcarving shop in 1937. The Santos-Herrera shop prospered. Herrera died after the war in 1945.

 During his prime as a sculptor, Santiago made a carro shaped like a vessel for the Nuestra Señora de La Naval housed the University of santo Tomas Chapel of the Dominicans, now at Santo Domingo in Quezon City, and the carro of Tondo’s Santo Niño. These silver-plated works were disposed off at a bargain price of Php6,500 and Php7,000 respectively. He also produced a carro for the Santuario de San Juan at Blumentritt and for a chapel in Bacolod City, he made the Pieta. To Iloilo, he sent sculptures of saints to the De la Ramas, Guanzons and Villanuevas.

 Santiago’s wife, Margarita, died in 1955, shortly after completing their Silver Wedding Anniversary which was attended by Archbishop Rufino J. Santos. The children she left him were Alfredo (Ding, married to Consolacion Jorge), Caridad (Mrs. Alberto Anzures) and Manuel (married to Pacita de Vera). Santiago has two other children, Eriberto and Rosario.

 Santiago still resides in Zurbaran. He has close-cropped gray hair but he is still hale. Ocassionally, he carves ivory with a chisel but avoids wielding the sledge hammer at the age of 74.

 Santiago has turned over the chisel to his son Alfredo, The Santos family has an open offer to San Ignacio residents that they will carve any saint’s image of their choice for free provided they clothe the image and send for its participation in the procession during the annual fiesta. On Ding falls the burden of carrying out this vow.

 To date, there are 11 images paraded around during the barangay fiesta, all carved by the Santos family.Not even Quiapo, which has the most lavish procession during its January 9 fiesta, can top the number of images of San Ignacio. The San Ignacio procession, attended by the residents and brass bands, penetrates even the narrowest byways of the area. It has been held consistently ever since Cabezang Santos instituted it in the 1890s, except during the Japanese Occupation when times were hard and Filipinos were suffering.

 On an ordinary day, Ding Santos sits in a small shop where his father used to sit in Zurbaran, which has been renamed Valeriano Fugoso, after a former mayor of Manila. The area has metamorphosed from a grassy and swampy patch into a bustling commercial district where motor vehicles, tricycles rub fenders with carretelas and the multitude milling about all day.

 Ding creates out of whimsy cute Santo Niños, lovely Virgins, bleeding Sacred Hearts and delicate faces and hands out of ivory. His brother Manuel sprays and paints the finished images, attaches the crowns of silver and gold plating and garbs them in the rich velvet costumes embroidered with gold thread.

 Batikuling has become scarce. He supply from Laguna has run out and that of Mindoro is not always dependable. But Ding carries in in the tradition of his grandfather, his father and the Santa Cruz sculptors of yore.

Monday, July 6, 2015

225.Retro-Santo: SAN ANTONIO DE PADUA of the St. Anthony Shrine, Sampaloc

SAN ANTONIO DE PADUA. The center of veneration of many Filipinos in the church of Sampaloc is this image of St. Anthony, patron saint for the recovery of lost items. His devotion was promoted by Franciscan missionaries.

The St. Anthony Shrine in Sampaloc is one of two Franciscan churches in Manila dedicated to the devotion of St. Anthony of Padua, propagated by the Order. The first Franciscan missionaries to the Philippines embarked from the port of San Lucas in July 1576 and by the time the ship reached Manila on 24 June 1577, seven had died in the voyage leaving just 10 Franciscans to start their missions.

By 2 August, they had finished the construction of a convent where they were lodged. A second mission from Madrid left in 1577, which included San Pedro Bautista, who was martyred in Japan. The Franciscans are credited for founding the towns of Santa Ana De Sapa, Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Pililla, Lumbang, Tayabas, Naga, Morong, Lucban, Pila, Pangil, Iriga, among others.

In the 18th and mid 19th cenury, the Order expanded its labors in Leyte and Samar. Known as builders, Franciscans erected San Juan De Dios Hospital and founded the San Lazaro Leprosarium (1605), the Military Hospital (1578, destroyed in an 1863 earthquake), San Diego Leprosarium in Camarines (1586, the Monte de Piedad de Manila (1879)—and the aforementioned twin churches.

The St. Anthony Shrine on Bustillos St. houses a very old image of San Antonio de Padua who bears the Christ Child in his arms. This San Antonio used to be enshrined at the Iglesia de San Francisco, a monumental church constructed in 1739 in the walled city of Intramuros. It is the devotion to this saint that proved to be popular among Filipinos, and in time, the image became an important icon of veneration, drawing devotees from all over for the triduum masses and processions held from June 13 to 16.

The stately Franciscan Church, however, suffered the same fate as major churches during the 1945 Liberation of Manila , completely destroyed by bombs in the bloody siege. When people came back to sort through the ruins, they found the image of their revered San Antonio miraculously unscathed, under the rubble of the church.

The rescued statue was whisked away for safekeeping to the Franciscan church of Sta. Ana. Through the prodding of Fr, Mariano Montero, OFM, the image was transferred to the reconstructed convent and church of V.O.T. in Sampaloc, which became known as the Shrine of St. Anthony. San Antonio was mounted on the wall directly behind the main altar of the shrine.

The saint continues to attract large crowds anywhere from 5,000 devotees on ordinary days, to 8,000 during the 13 weekly Solemn Novenas prefacing the saint’s feast day.

Saturday, June 13, 2015


Artist, painter, culinary chef, restaurateur, watercolorist, furniture designer, food and travel columnist, award-winning author, furniture designer, antique collector--there are so many hats that  Claude Moises Tayag (born 1956, Angeles City, Philippines) wear, and the great thing about him is, he wears them so well--making him a master of everything that he chooses to venture in.

But this Kapampangan "Renaissance Man" describes himself as a self-taught artist, a passion he indulged in as an architecture and economics student at the University of the Philippines. Mentored by another great Kapampangan artist and literary giant, Emilio "Abe" Aguilar Cruz, Claude (pronounced as "Cloud") acquired a taste for all aspects of the creative arts, spurred by his collecting interest--Philippine colonial santos.

Claude started collecting antique miniature santos; he put a ceiling to the height of santos he would buy--no more than 8 inches tall. He would sadly walk away if a santo that initially caught his fancy measured more than 8 inches, and he stuck to this collecting discipline, amassing these Lilliputian santos slowly, but surely.

In fact, they were his inspirations in 1978, when he first barged into the Manila art circuit. Claude exhibited his vivid watercolor santo paintings, collated in a folio of plates, now just as collectible as his artworks.

His art grew to include paintings of Philippine festivals, the landscapes of the northern highlands--all vibrantly painted with characteristic spontaneity and vigor. But though he put on hold his santo collecting, his love for these folk images--he was partial also to primitive carvings--never waned.

In his spacious "Bale Dutung" (House of Wood) in an Angeles subdivision, Claude keeps his collection on a large antique table. The centerpiece urna is flanked by santos--mostly of heavy wood-- of all titles and patronages--but all under 8 inches.

There are Ninos and Virgins, heads of saints and tableaus, mostly with Bohol provenance (santos from this province are typically small, painted with folksy colors and carved from heavy wood.

It is interesting to note that in 2015, Claude returned to his first love--watercolor painting. When he took up his brush again, it came as no surprised that he chose for his subjects once more--colonial folk santos, no less!

On this spread are some santos from his fabulous, but well-selected collection. I had the privilege to personally view them some years ago, when he and lovely wife, Mary Ann, hosted a small dinner for his high school batchmates--which included me! Proud Class of 1973 of Sacred Heart Seminary (now Chevalier School) in Angeles City.

Here we are at the Golden Anniversary of our high school, where we were both named outstanding alumni of  Sacred Heart. Beyond collecting santos...we also collect memories!

Saturday, June 6, 2015


The Santa Misericordia of Angeles is owned by the Evangelistas of this city, known for their pioneering telecom business. It was commissioned by Don Roman Bernardo Evangelista and his wife Dona Francisca Dizon Dela Resma, along with another statue intended for the La Naval celebration—the image of San Miguel Arcangel.

 The Misericordia was completed in 1907 to honor the birth of the couple’s youngest son, Santos Evangelista, while the San Miguel, given to the eldest son, Domingo Sr., was inaugurated in 1916.

The Santa Misericordia, also locally known as “Macapacu Qng Cruz”or the Crucifixion, is a tableaux that depicts figure of the crucified Christ flanked by San Juan and the Mater Dolorosa. Interestingly, there are two other characters atop the ladder another horse-riding soldier positioned at the back of the cross.

With all these santo figures, the Misericordia looks more like another scene known as The Descent from the Cross (El Sagrado Descendemiento), in which San Nicodemus and San Jose Arimathea are shown bringing down the body of Christ from the cross. Could it be that the two figures on the ladder were later additions to transform the Crucifixion into a Descendemiento tableau?

 In the past, Angeles’ Sta. Veronica, for example, is converted into a Sta. Salome on Holy Thursday. I have also seen two-faced Virgins so that using the same body, the image can either be a Dolorous Virgin and a Joyful Virgin, with just a twist of the head.

When the Misericordia was completed, it was given to the care of Don Ramon’s only daughter, Leonora Evangelista (Panlilio) and the aforementioned youngest son, Santos. When the Evangelista siblings passed away, Jesus and Zon Gopiao, became the caretakers of the carroza.

When not in use, the santos and their carrozas are stored in a spacious room designed expressly for their safekeeping.

 Today, the children of Leonor-- Gerry, Mary Ann Panlilio Reyes and William Panlilio, plus the 3rd generation members of the clan—continue the family tradition of caring for these beloved family heirlooms. They regularly participate in the annual Lenten rites of the city of Angeles.

I wish to thank Mr. Ira Jay Evangelista for the pictures and Mr. Josel Suarez for the bacground of the images, both of whom are descendants of Don Roman Evangelista.

Friday, May 22, 2015


IMMACULATE TRANSACTION. This spectacular Immaculate Conception of over 3 feet, appeared for sale on ebay from dealer "robacus" or "losantiguos", who was allegedly involved in church theft sometime in 2003-04.. The case was later dismissed.

This spread of fabulous santos appeared on the ebay page of Rory Bacus, who sold antique santos under the name "robacus" and "losantiguos". After some objects were found in his house, the Cebu archdiocese sued the dealer for fencing various religious artifacts in October 2003.

In April of the next year, a decision was handed down by the Cebu Regional Trial Court dismissing the case against Bacus.

Regional Trial Court Judge Ireneo Lee Gako Jr., in a Feb. 20 order, exonerated  Bacus of the charges of violating the Anti-Fencing Law. The court also ordered the release of 278 religious icons and artifacts to Bacus.

The dismissal of the case greatly disappointed Church officials who expressed their disgust over the outcome of the case. Fr. Carlito Pono, head of the Commission on the Cultural Heritage of the Church, admitted that while some of the parishes that reportedly lost icons had refused to cooperate, others could not find any evidence to prove ownership of the stolen items.

While the case was dragging, Bacus returned to eba,  although this time around, his posted items were smaller, primitive santos--the kinds one can readily find in downtown Manila antique shops.

Ninos, such as these, obviously carried by bigger santo figures like San Antonio, Virgen del Rosario, etc. were also listed on ebay. Some were sold, others withdrawn for sale even after a winning bid had been placed. The dealer sent explanatory messages to the effect that the item had been sold in an antique fair and that he had forgotten.

The noted antique dealer, Rory Bacus, passed away, sometime in 2013. The whereabouts of his remaining antique santo stock remains unknown.

Saturday, May 16, 2015


SEÑOR DESMAYADO OF THE DYCO FAMILY, Guagua. Photo by Dr. Raymund Feliciano.

In Guagua, Pampanga, the last time the processional image of Christ sprawled and tied to a column was processioned, was in 1942. The Dyco family that owned it had decided that the image was going to be an heirloom to be bequeathed to descendants, so for a long time, it was kept at home. A fire that razed its carroza sealed the fate of the treasured Desmayado. It would take 62 years for the image to be processed again, coming out for the Lenten rites only in 2004, borne on a carroza obtained fortunately from the L.M. Subdivision chapel.

 The antique Desmayado image itself was commissioned by one of Guagua’s leading citizen, Don Tiburcio Dyco, carved by hand in 1882 by the accomplished sculptor, Sotero Dionisio Garcia (b. 12 Apr. 1844/ d. 10 Jun. 1917) of Quiapo, Manila. The young Sotero trained under the tutelage of Jose Arevalo, and, after mastering the craft of woodcarving, he set up his own taller at the entresuelo of his house along Sta. Rosa St. With the help of Juan Sales who helped source projects for his shop, Garcia started to receive important commissions for religious statuaries, carrozas, retablos and altar pieces.

Some of his known works include the four figures on the façade of the Manila Cathedral; the statues of Saints Peter, Paul, and the Immaculate Conception enshrined in the central niches of the same Cathedral; the images of Sta. Maria Magdalena, San Juan, Veronica and Oracion en el Huerto (Agony in the Garden) at the Recoleto Church of Manila.,

For the Dycos, he carved a most expressive Desmayado—a figure of an exhausted Christ, writhing on the floor, his left arm tied to a pillar by the wrist, his body bloodied and covered with welts. Christ’s s eyes are drawn up in supplication, his mouth agape, grimacing from his indescribable torture.

 Five years after its carving, the Dyco patriarch decided to add three “Hudyo”soldiers to surround the fallen Christ figure. The task fell to Eulogio V. Garcia, son of Sotero with Petrona Velarde, who carved the characters in 1887, inscribing the neck with the date and his name. The heads and hands of these figures are still extant, but with bodies gone; they are no longer in use.

 The elder Garcia became a local politico, served several terms as gobernadorcillo, and eventually turned over his religious statuary business to Eulogio. Eulogio would go on to become a successful carver and sculptor, as his father.

 Today, as in the past, the Desmayado of the Dycos-Carreon—along with the Santo Sepulcro of the Ynfante-Velez family, the Mater Dolorosa of Limson—are among the Guagua’s most revered and most prized objects of veneration, around whom the devotion of the old town revolves, all during the days of the Holy Week.

Thursday, April 23, 2015


HEADS WILL ROLL. All these exquisite antique santo heads from the Philippines were auctioned off on ebay, by the controversial antique dealer, Rory Bacus. The fate of unsold santos remain unknown. 

One of the most controversial dealers of Philippine religious antiquities was the late Rory Bacus of Cebu, who listed his business as an exporter-importer of woodcarvings. In the early 2000s, Rory Bacus, under the name "robacus", posted regularly on the international auction site, ebay, many religious artifacts, examples of which are shown here on this page.

Bacus has been associated with the loss of many old religious images from Cebu parishes, which includes figures of Virgen Dolorosa, Baby Jesus of Mount Carmel, San Jose, Nazareno and Sta. Monica, from the Santa Monica Parish in Dalaguete, Cebu.

These, along with 158 icons, including 58 crucifixes and other sacred artifacts, were recovered in a raid conducted in the house of Bacus in late April 2003. Bacus had also been allegedly involved in the disappearances of many images from different churches in and outside Cebu.

In October 2003, the Archdiocese of Cebu charged the noted antique dealer of fencing various religious artifacts. Included in the complaint at the City Prosecutor’s Office was an affidavit of Rosa Navarro, the treasurer of the Badian pastoral council who testified that she was able to recognize a cherubim icon, among the  icons seized by the police from Bacus’ house in a previous May 2003 raid.

On April 25, 2003, prior to the serving of the search warrant, the police were also able to retrieve ten antique religious icons at a house in Guizo, Mandaue City, reportedly owned by Bacus. Agapito Torrentira, councilor of Inabanga town in Bohol, and barangay captain Emiliano Divino, of the same place, came to Cebu and identified two of the icons recovered as among those stolen from barangay Cambitoon chapel, of the town.

A second police raid conducted later yielded  the images of San Isidro Labrador, San Agustin, and Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, verified by the 2 Bohol officials as items stolen from their place.Carcar residents, Josefina Roldan, Angeliza Tanodtanod, and Silvina Francisco had also stated that they had identified another icon from Bacus, as the one stolen from a chapel in barangay Perrelos of the town.

However, Bacus’' lawyer had earlier questioned the search that the police had conducted, arguing that they used a general warrant, which was not specific as to what objects will be searched. The lawyer also contended that the police were not able to establish that icons seized were indeed stolen, as alleged. She said those icons could not be declared as illegally possessed if there is no evidence to show these were stolen somewhere. (TO BE CONTINUED)

All pictures were grabbed and saved from actual postings on ebay between 2000-2003.